Molecular biology of the cell 5th edition pdf free download

Please forward this error screen to 193. Essentials of Biology is an introductory biology text for non-major students that can be used in a one- or two-semester course. Molecular biology of the cell 5th edition pdf free download was prepared to engage today’s students in the science of biology by providing a fundamental understanding of life. Throughout the text, multimedia assets and Connections boxes encourage the student to integrate scientific concepts into their lives.

We only index and link to content provided by other sites. Please contact the content providers to delete copyright contents if any and email us, we’ll remove relevant links or contents immediately. Each chapter opens with an application that highlights the relevance of biology and motivates the study of the topic. You then learn basic concepts which help you think critically about these issues. Advances in Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. We only index and link to content provided by other sites. Please contact the content providers to delete copyright contents if any and email us, we’ll remove relevant links or contents immediately.

Please forward this error screen to 216. This article is about the term in biology. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological units for their resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery. Cells are of two types, eukaryotic, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotic, which do not.

Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. The genetic material is freely found in the cytoplasm. On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell’s surface. Plants, animals, fungi, slime moulds, protozoa, and algae are all eukaryotic.

These cells are about fifteen times wider than a typical prokaryote and can be as much as a thousand times greater in volume. The plasma membrane resembles that of prokaryotes in function, with minor differences in the setup. Cell walls may or may not be present. The eukaryotic DNA is organized in one or more linear molecules, called chromosomes, which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Many eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia.

Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, mechanosensation, and thermosensation. Motile eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella. Motile cells are absent in conifers and flowering plants. Eukaryotic flagella are less complex than those of prokaryotes. The cell membrane, or plasma membrane, is a biological membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell. In animals, the plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell, while in plants and prokaryotes it is usually covered by a cell wall. A fluorescent image of an endothelial cell.

Nuclei are stained blue, mitochondria are stained red, and microfilaments are stained green. Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. This can be transient, if the DNA is not inserted into the cell’s genome, or stable, if it is. Certain viruses also insert their genetic material into the genome. There are several types of organelles in a cell.

The central and rightmost cell are in interphase, so their DNA is diffuse and the entire nuclei are labelled. The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its chromosomes have condensed. Cell nucleus: A cell’s information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. The ER has two forms: the rough ER, which has ribosomes on its surface that secrete proteins into the ER, and the smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes. Golgi apparatus: The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.

They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. Vacuoles: Vacuoles sequester waste products and in plant cells store water. They are often described as liquid filled space and are surrounded by a membrane. Some cells, most notably Amoeba, have contractile vacuoles, which can pump water out of the cell if there is too much water. The vacuoles of plant cells and fungal cells are usually larger than those of animal cells. Ribosomes: The ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. They each consist of two subunits, and act as an assembly line where RNA from the nucleus is used to synthesise proteins from amino acids.