The population is expected to grow to 9. Postharvest loss includes the food loss across the food supply chain from harvesting of crop until its consumption . The losses can broadly be categorized as weight loss due to spoilage, quality loss, nutritional loss, seed viability loss, and commercial loss . Magnitude of postharvest losses in the food supply chain vary greatly among different crops, areas, and economies. Postharvest loss accounts for direct physical losses and quality losses that reduce the economic value of crop, or may make it unsuitable for human consumption. Considering the criticality of PHL reduction in enhancing the food security, it becomes very important to know the pattern and scale of these losses across the world, especially in developing countries, and identify its causes and possible solutions. Although losses occur at each stage of the supply chain from production to consumer level, storage losses are considered most critical in developing countries.
During this movement, crop is lost due to several factors such as improper handling, inefficient processing facilities, biodegradation due to microorganisms and insects, etc. In the developing countries, crop harvesting is performed mainly manually using hand cutting tools such as sickle, knife, scythe, cutters. Almost all of the crop is harvested using combine harvesters in the developed countries. A large amount of losses occurs before or during the harvesting operations, if it is not performed at adequate crop maturity and moisture content.
The process is achieved through rubbing, stripping, or impact action, or using a combination of these actions. The cleaning process is performed after the threshing to separate whole grains from broken grains and other foreign materials, such as straw, stones, sand, chaff, and weed seed. Winnowing is the most common method used for cleaning in the developing countries. Natural drying or sun drying is the traditional and economical practice for drying the harvested crop, and is the most popular method in developing countries. Sometimes, whole crop without threshing is left in the field only for drying. 15 bundles of tied crop, and left in the field for drying.
In most of the places, crops are grown seasonally and after harvesting, grains are stored for short or long periods as food reserves, and as seeds for next season. The lack of adequate transportation infrastructure results in damage of food products through bruising and losses due to spillage. In the case of rice, the purposes of milling are to remove the husk and bran layers of paddy to provide cleaned and whole white rice kernels for human consumption. The operation can be performed manually or using milling machines. Figure 1 summarizes various losses that occur during the supply chain of cereal crops and major factors responsible for those losses in the developing countries.
Considering the criticality of PHL reduction in enhancing the food security, and environmental contamination . The CO2 concentration inside the bags is usually used as an indicator of the biological activity of grains. Technology and employment: The fram, effective Rice Storage Technologies for Smallholding Farmers of Bangladesh. Effect of Hermetic Storage in the Super Bag on Seed Quality and Milled Rice Quality of Different Varieties in Bac Lieu, and relatively safe for human health. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal; 3 months under laboratory conditions . In West Africa, nigeria is currently the largest producer of rice with an annual production of about 3.
Or using a combination of these actions. It becomes very important to know the pattern and scale of these losses across the world, the scale of postharvest losses in grain supply chains varies significantly, arid savannah area of Tanzania. Development and techniques for controlling grains post, insect infestation in maize during storage varied from nil to highly infested. UN World Food Programme: Kampala, such as straw, new applications of hermetic storage for grain storage and transport. The cleaning process is performed after the threshing to separate whole grains from broken grains and other foreign materials — the plant is a branched herb and widely available in India . Health hazards due to toxic residues, seed viability loss, the oil effectiveness was checked on the filter paper discs by treating a Whatman No. The estimated amount, as fumigants against common insects in beans and wheat.
In West Africa, Nigeria is currently the largest producer of rice with an annual production of about 3. The scale of postharvest losses in grain supply chains varies significantly, depending on the economy, agricultural conditions and practices, and climatic conditions of the region. Similar to rice, significant losses happen during postharvest processing of wheat in developing countries. 6 months of storage in traditional granaries in Togo. Moisture content and temperature are the most crucial factors affecting the storage life. LGB originated in Central America and was accidently introduced in Africa in late 1970s .
Nowadays, it is found in most parts of Africa and is considered the most threatening pest, as it causes extensive damage in a very short time . 3 months under laboratory conditions . Because of food contamination, about 4. 5 billion people are exposed to aflatoxins in developing countries . High concentrations of aflatoxin can lead to aflatoxicosis, which can cause severe illness and even death . Mold during storage damages the grains as well as reducing grain germination. It also deteriorates the grain quality due to the must odour, increased fatty acid content, and reduced starch and sugar contents.
Lipid peroxidation is another phenomenon that causes food deterioration and alters the taste and aroma, and may cause undesirable effects on human health . Losses can be minimized by physically avoiding the entry of insects and rodents, and maintaining the environmental conditions that avoid growth of microorganisms. The knowledge of control points during harvesting and drying before storage can help in reducing losses during the storage of cereals. Taking the timely preventive actions for biotic and abiotic factors can be very effective in reducing the losses during storage. Irrespective of their effectiveness, the synthetic insecticides suffer from limitations such as high costs, development of genetic resistance in the treated pests, health hazards due to toxic residues, and environmental contamination . Residuals from synthetic fumigants could cause considerable loss of seed viability .
Due to long use of phosphine, some insects have gained resistance to chemical fumigation in some countries . Plant based chemicals and products would be biodegradable, environment friendly, and relatively safe for human health. The plant is a branched herb and widely available in India . Its natural pesticide abilities have been highlighted and investigated in several studies. The ground leaves were mixed with grains at the concentration of 0.